HTML and other related Web technologies were initially developed to allow for the publication of natural language documents on the Internet, for reading by humans. The key phrase in the previous sentence is “for reading by humans”. Humans are very good at reading natural language documents and interpreting meaning. Computers on the other hand, while they are good at serving these documents, are very bad at reading them and interpreting them. Computers require precise instructions: if you want a computer to do something for you, it is better that you have data rather than documents.
The standards for serving Web documents have been widely adopted and they power the Web that we know and love today. By contrast, while there are proposed standards for serving Web data, these standards have not been widely adopted: less than 1% of websites use RDF. This is a problem if you want to make computers do things with the content that is available on the Web. You can use an API if one is available; although compared to the number of websites that there are, there are not that many APIs – Programmable Web lists only 8,500 in its API directory. Where APIs are not available, you have to resort to web-scraping. Using either APIs or web-scraping in order to get data both require that the data-user be able to write computer code.
This matters for those of us interested in open data because data (including open data) is still too difficult to get at. It should be possible to access Web data without having to write any computer code. The promised value of open data will only be realized if data becomes easier to access on the Web.
In the future, I hope that Web data standards such as RDF become widely adopted. I wish that I could wave a magic wand and make all websites adopt Web data standards. This would mean that the content on every website would be represented as data as well as documents and we would be able to make our computers automatically operate upon that content. But it has been twelve years since Tim Berners-Lee first articulated the vision for a Web of data and as of today the future that he described has still not arrived.
At import.io we are trying to help create the Web of data by making it possible to access Web data without having to write any computer code.
by Andrew Fogg, CDO